1895 War between King Makgoba and the ZAR Repuliek

King Makgoba

For the younger generations who were born into freedom; so called “born frees”, it becomes a difficult task to understand ones origins and history given the many barriers to historical information. It can become even more difficult if there are no tangible records available to point to truth and fact; worse when there is virtually no living person in a form of experienced elders to recite the tale over again. When those who are still around are often too reluctant to share information, the only option available for the youth is to do it on their own.

I happened to be one of those young people who has thus far gone through a lot of pain trying to unravel the mystery of my own history and origins. After some extensive consultation with a couple of elders within my immediate family of the Molepos i began to realize just how tough it is for us as young people to find out exactly first; who we are, where we come from in terms of tribal relationships and so forth. Much of what ive been able to collect through my circles over the years did not help that much and only served to keep me second guessing. I would say that after almost 10 years of volunteer and unscientific research within my own circles i never came across information that was poignant and simply put than the one recorded by Professor LOUIS CHANGUION. His work titled “A REPORT ON THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF NDOWANA’S PROSPECTING ACTIVITIES ON ITEMS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN HAENERTSBURG AND ITS SURROUNDINGS” was an oasis i was looking for after years of knowledge thirst and speculation.

I have always believed the notion that the Molepos as we know them today owe their allegiances to a rich history of ups and downs; just like many tribes of Africa who were displaced, forcefully ruled and crucified by colonial rule. Perhaps the very suffering of these tribes under colonial rule in my view is one of the reason why our elders feel i would imagine; its better to not tell than subject children to stories of horror, subjugation and humiliation. Still, for a young person like myself who believe that it is only through telling the facts that the mystery of history be unraveled; the elderly silence that i have been subjected to by some quarters in my own family is a spectacle that i do not want to see continue. And so i have decided to; with all well meaning intentions; collect as much information as i could for review, storage, re-organisation and dissemination.

So here is the story: According to Changuion, L(2008), the Molepos started living around the area of Hearnetzburg between the year 1500 and 1700. In his article Changuion stated that “It seems, however, that there is a general consensus among the authoritative sources about the origins of the black tribes and that some of them arrived in this area some time between 1500 and 1700. The Mamabolo tribe settled, not far from where, much later, the village of Haernetzburg was founded and the Molepo (Malepo) tribe on their western side (where they, the Molepos, still are to this day). Further to the east, below the escarpment, stayed the BaTlou under kgoshi Makgoba. The Mamabolos, it is believed, were the first tribe to have settled in this area – some say even before 1500. They were all part of the Northern Sotho nation”. From this information one learns that there is some form of link between the Basothos of Lesotho and the tribes described by Changuion; and which includes the Molepos. Could this link be based on the expoits of King Moshoeshoe and his ability to unite nations during the Mfeqane wars led by the Zulus? It is also clear from the extract above that the people of Kgosi Makgoba and the Molepos share the same tribal totem because they are known as the BaTlou or Elephant which the Molepos of today still carry. King Makgoba’s praise poem(found here http://makgobagen.wozaonline.co.za/Sereto) further attests to this relationship with Molepos.

In addition; one also learns that there is a clear distinction between a tribe known as the Bapedi in the region now known as Ga Sekhukhune and the Northen Sotho tribes mentioned in Changuion’s article. I cannot imagine a day and a situation whereby the people in the North Western and North Eastern parts of Limpopo province of the day argue and fight over who is the paramount Chief of all the people in our vicinity given the historical fact of Kgosi Thulare and his many brave conquests which led to him believing that he ruled over the said piece of land until the ZAR Republiek came and took it away from him. This we acknowledge in light of the fact that; as Setumu, TE in Changuion(2008) stated: “The Bapedi chiefdom is singled out from the other Northern Sotho chiefdoms because it enjoyed a lot of ascendancy over the others in all spheres. It once established a powerful empire which reached its zenith during the reign of Thulare (about 1790 – 1824). Its influence was so extensive that other [Northern Sotho]chiefdoms came to recognise its paramountcy”.The ZAR and thereafter the British
forces in the 1870s destroyed the power of the Sekhukunes and since then the Northern Sothos did not have a Paramount Chief (King) any more”. We also acknowledge the sacrifices made by Kgosi Mampuru II when he resisted against colonial rule but unfortunately ended up paying for his life. His remains are a mystery up to this day(2013). According to Changuion(2008)”Traditional leadership is still
divided by our present government into three categories, i.e. Kgoshighulus (Kings or paramount chiefs) at the top followed by Kgoshis (chiefs) and under the chiefs the Indunas (headmen). The pyramid has a very few kings on top but many chiefs under them and even more headmen under the chiefs. Thus in the former Lebowa there are no kings at present but 128 chiefs and over 900 headmen”. This is understantable considering that the same structure still suffice even today. However; one cannot help but evaluate further the statement by Setumu on Thulare’s paramountcy during those internecine battles; which is interesting given the fact that there is currently a debate raging among-st the inhabitants of the said regions of Limpopo as to; for example, what is the name of the official language spoken and how should the tribes combined be referred to as?

In contrast; i am of the opinion it would be a serious indictment on the part of the people of Sekhukhune land to claim that everyone; and by everyone i mean all the tribes combined;are Pedis and therefore speak a language called Sepedi. Although i am personally not against the ideal of uniting people; historical records point out a distinction between the different tribes of North-Eastern and North Western regions including the South; i believe they should be treated as such and while we should not rubbish any claims to paramountcy; any attempt to solidify must be done through continuous consultation. Realistically, the Molepos as well as other tribes living next to them are Northern Sothos and kin to King Makgoba and his people. This relationship is documented in Changuion’s article where he retorted: “Makgoba himself stated in 1892, when he appeared before the Location Commission, that, although they were previously subordinate to the Letswalo/Narene tribe (Nare, that is buffalo totem), they are closely related to the Molepos (Tlou – elephant totem)”.

So why write this some of you may ask. Well i am a young person who is passionate about history and its often unspoken truths. It gives me great discomfort to realize there is so much to know yet not many in our generation are not willing to use the time offered by the Almighty to dig deep, search and find facts about identity.By writing and sharing this knowledge i hope to inspire many others to put knowledge of self first before anything else. What i learned from Changuion’s article is that if you dont tell your tales someone else will come and tell them for you.

We now know that Makhudu Traditional Authority(Headman role) is a part of the broader Traditional Authority which is Molepo Traditional Authority and that the Molepos are kin to Kgosi Makgoba and his people. That the 1895 War between Kgosi Makgoba and the ZAR Republic was fought alongside individual members of the Molepos as Changioun remarks: “Although Molepo did not openly joined in the war on the side of Makgoba it was known that they sympathised with the Makgobas and that some individuals from Molepo on their own fought with their kin”.

In 2014, the original Molepo tribe turns 314 years since they started living in the area around Hearnetzburg; which is still the area they still live in today. Since their tribal authority was only conditionally “recognised” by the ZAR Republiek in 1956 under the Bantu Authorities Act 68 of 1951, the Molepo Chiefdom only turns 58 in 2014. We appreciate all the sacrifices made by our foremothers and fathers to this date!

For more on this kindly refer to the article by Changuion at http://wp.me/a2ne71-7e

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Whats the difference between Traditional African religion and Christianity?

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A very inspiring discussion took place on SA FM’s Morning Talk on the 24th of September 2013. In the guest list was a panel of experts and those included Mr Ntshangase – a retired lecturer at the University of Kwazulu Natal and Chief Sefogole Makgeru – deputy Chairperson of the House of Traditional Leaders. By conception the discussion was relevant given the fact that South Africa was celebrating Heritage Day – a day that was formerly known as Shaka Day and since adjusted into Heritage Day with the dawn of democracy in 1994. The question asked: what is the difference between Traditional African religion and Christianity? was pertinent to present day South Africa where we have a diversity of belief systems manifesting themselves into different religions.

It is very interesting the topic of religion and given the sensitivity of the topic, it was to be expected that the discussion would become heated. But what is the difference between Traditional African religion and Christianity? According to Christianity, believers are taught to connect to God through the one and only son of God Jesus Christ. In contrast, Traditional African religion puts emphasis on praying to God through the ancestors who due to their perceived spiritual essence, are acknowledged as a closer link to God. But it doesnt stop there, on the one hand, Christians have been taught to believe that the manner in which Traditional African religion connects with God is inappropriate and thus there is a need to “repent” or “convert” or “be born again” – a call that appears, at least from where one stands, more subjective than fair. It is this sort of persuasive language that leaves one with more questions than answers given the fact that on the other hand, there is less evidence to suggest that Traditional African religion perceives Christianity as inappropriate. In the Christian faith, there are quite a number of words and concepts used to refer to other religions as inferior. Words like “demons”,” heathen” and “pagan” have been recorded in the Bible – which is instrumental in Christianity. Although some people have gone on to deny Christianity calls Traditional African religion names, it became clear that there is a polarity of views within the Christian cohort. We could sense that when one caller who claimed to be a Christian smsed “ Traditional African religion is demonic period, for one to connect to God they need to be cleansed with the blood of the only messiah – our Lord Jesus Christ” but the laughter that came from Chief Makgeru and Ntate Ntshangase suggested otherwise. According to Chief Makgeru: “African religion is not a church, its a way of live. You don’t need an instrument like the Bible or a Koran to connect to God. It is a home grown faith similar to breathing and therefore was never necessary to go to church to pray, its all in the nature of humans that they know there is a higher being connected to them via the spiritual world: Modimo ”.

The question posed, as provocative as it is, is quite heavy given the fact that there is a dominant worldview that suggests one religion is better than the other. If one was to ask people who follow the Christian doctrine; it is to be expected that the perspective would be skewed towards their choice of religion and vice versa. Through the information explosion that came with the missionary education that was brought to Africa and other parts of the world during the hey days of colonisation and subsequently, Apartheid; it has become a normality for the Christian faith to present itself into a religion “of all” and ultimately; the perception since then has been that for someone to connect with God; they ought to pray God through Jesus Christ. One interesting caller on the radio show responded to the question by claiming that the main purpose of missionary education was not to belittle other religions but to merely teach what the Bible had purported ought to be exported to other nations in the world, for enlightenment?

The connection one can trace between the vociferous conquest of broad based education by western nations into Africa and the belittlement of the existence of African religion by this sort of subjective Christian worldview is immense and has caused so much tension, wars, terror and the eventual hatred between human beings; in particular Africans. In the world today we continue to see a battle of ideology in religion between religions such as Islam, Judaism and Christianity just to mention a few. This battle, one could claim, has nothing to do with natural competition but the desire by one religion to rule over the other. And this has been so since the earliest centuries. As we continue into the 22nd and 23rd centuries, one wonders whether the hatred that has become between people of different religions will ever cede?

There is no religion that is better than the other, that’s a subjective worldview, retorted Ntate Ntshangase. It became clear from the discussion that day as Chief Makgeru concluded, that “the differences in religion will be with us for years to come”. What we have gathered thus far is that the only way to a peaceful future of religious justice is for people to be tolerant towards each other. For most people in the Traditional African religion, the future means that they will have to learn to live with the damage that has been done by certain quarters of the Christian faith. As already divided as we are in the African nation, it would be crazy for anyone to suggest those who have been converted and influenced by the Eurocentric way of life would suddenly revert back to Indigenous Knowledge Systems. By the same token, it is unacceptable that in a democratic society like South Africa, the perception that Traditional African religion is inferior continues to manifest amid the many attempts made since 1994 to address the injustices of the past. It is clear that Christianity is instrumentalist and persuasive in nature while Traditional African religion is introvert and non-partisan. Let everyone stick with what works for them and continue to learn from one another as one human family.

“African Customary Law: Contemporary Issues” and the launch of the Center for Indigenous Law

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On receiving the news of the upcoming conference organised by the Department of Public Constitutional and International Law; on “African Customary Law: Contemporary issues” and the launch of the Center for Indigenous Law at the University of South Africa i became so interested in African Customary Law as a discipline.

With so much being debated around the Traditional Courts Bill as an attempt by the state to address the gaps in the traditional sector, i wonder if the launch of the Center for Indigenous Law was a precursor for probable solutions for the now defaced Traditional Sector. How would the center help our Indigenous Knowledge Systems find their place in the predominantly Northern Hemispheric knowledge contained in records used in mainstream education?

Its really disturbing to note locally, people find cracks in the education system but seldom engage on Indigenous Knowledge Systems as crucial in addressing same. Where IKS are spoken about, many reduce them to smaller aspects like African herbs and healers. There is a need to dymystify this differential ignorance and promote the ideal of including IKS into mainstream education to a point where learners in schools do not think of school subjects as abstract but content with social and cultural relevance. For instance, the indigenous game called morabaraba contains geometrical symbols and theory which is an indication our forebears were aware of Mathematics way before colonisation and apartheid put a dent on our Indigenous Knowledge.

No wonder pupils in schools see maths and science as abstract monsters which prey on human minds. Many teachers still go with the notion maths, science, astronomy etc are only found in other knowledge systems which have thus far succeeded in destroying the psyche of the lay man and woman.

We need to start promoting Indigenous Knowledge in mainstream education so as to allow our children from the family level up to school level, to understand most of the subjects taught at school are not foreign to our Indigenous Knowledge System. That they are in fact part and parcel of the knowledge. Thus, this responsibility rests on both parents and teachers to not only teach but teach using practical examples found within our communities. 

 

A Community Analysis for an ideal Library in Ga Molepo

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In today‟s information driven society, community libraries play an important role in the development of communities. This document focuses on the role of libraries in communities with due reference to Mankgaile Village, Ga Molepo. Librarians wishing to supply these communities with library and information service must be conscious of the needs of the communities when doing a community analysis. For the purpose of consistency, the term librarian will be used throughout the analysis. This analysis will discuss some of the most fundamental basics of community analysis as suggested by author; Gibson Reading (1998). A clear understanding of one‟s community, the awareness of the number of people, gender, age, ethnicity and socio-economic background is essential for the compilation of a community analysis that is user centred. Also in discussion are the reasons for library usage, library service timeframes, how the library management can keep users interested, issues of competition and identification of interest groups. Furthermore, librarians need to know who to partner with to ensure there is community involvement and responsibility sharing. In conclusion, the analysis focuses attention on the personality of the librarian and gives an opinion on what could be done to ensure library service adds value to the community

DOWNLOAD A COPY OF THE ANALYSIS HERE>>>>>>>https://makhudutraditionalauthority.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/community-anaysis-ga-molepo-library-project.pdf

Watch out Chief Molepo and Chief Mamabolo, the government isnt really your friend.

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Tomorrow is the deadline for public comment on the Expropriation Bill, which would give the minister of public works sweeping powers to expropriate private property – ranging from homes to business premises, and even shares and other investments – “in the public interest”.

Critics of the proposed legislation say it is vague and could severely damage the country’s investment credentials.

But yesterday Deputy Minister of Public Works Jeremy Cronin told The Times that the bill “makes sense” in the context of South Africa’s “historical reality”.

Part of that reality was revisited yesterday when tens of thousands of Zion Christian Church members gathered in Pretoria for a prayer meeting to mark the centenary of the enactment of the 1913 Land Act.

The act is widely regarded as the trigger of a series of laws of dispossession that later became the apartheid system, which limited black South Africans’ fixed property purchases to “scheduled black areas”.

Cronin said the bill would be better suited to land reform than the current Expropriation Act, which dates back to 1975.

He said the government would not “whimsically” expropriate once the bill was enacted.

But Manus Booysen, a partner at law firm Webber Wentzel, warned that the bill, if enacted in its current form, would “have severe implications for property rights”.

Respect for property rights and intellectual property protection were listed among the country’s strengths in the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report for 2013.

South Africa came 26th among 144 countries on protection of property rights and 20th on the protection of intellectual property, the report showed.

Property, Booysen said, was so broadly defined in the bill that it would include movable assets such as vehicles and works of art. It also refers to “a right in, or to, property”.

“This means that shares in a company, as well as various rights in property – including intellectual property rights and incorporeal property – could be expropriated under the bill,” said Booysen.

On compensation, Booysen said “there is no guarantee that you will get market value”.

The bill lists several factors that a court should take into account when considering the validity of an expropriation – and market value is just one of them.

The list is not exhaustive, meaning that “any other factor” could also be taken into account.

This, Booysen argued, would create uncertainty and was “a deterrent to both foreign local investment in this country”.

The bill does more than merely empower the minister to expropriate property for a “public purpose”, as provided for in the current act.

It also allows the minister to expropriate property in the “public interest”.

Though this is in line with the constitution, Booysen said the bill did not provide additional criteria to help in the assessment of what would be in the “public interest”.

But Cronin downplayed this, saying expropriation could still be challenged in court “if [the expropriation] is just to enrich somebody’s cousin”.

Cronin said the definition of property was deliberately kept “general” and that the bill was drafted on legal advice “to not get trapped into a definition”.

The DA’s spokesman on public works, Anchen Dreyer, said she was concerned that the bill, if it became law, would undermine security of property ownership.

“Security of ownership is essential for investment, foreign as well as domestic, and for starting or expanding businesses. If this right is tampered with, there will be little growth, with an adverse effect on job creation,” she said.

The bill succeeds a 2008 version, which was withdrawn towards the end of that year because of concerns in the consultation stages that it would severely damage the property market and discourage investment.

Cronin said that the bill was still being discussed by the National Economic Development and Labour Council.

http://www.timeslive.co.za/thetimes/2013/04/29/threat-to-property

‘Evil forces against Christian holidays’

After listening to the discussion on SA FM’s morning talk with Vuyo Mbuliand and his panel, it was decided that we post it here.
The debate was then taken to social networking site Facebookin a group called New Political Forum 2.0 Khuluma Afrika and the following was the post and subsequent responses:
Mahlaga:
If i said: “Remove some known Christian holidays from the calendar for more representation because they mean nothing to me, religiously “. A lot of people would freak out simply because issues of religion and culture are sensitive ones, right? The irony is that other linguistic, cultural and religious communities respect and accept Christian holidays as, just normal?

What i find amazing is that every effort to try and be inclusive in representation is met with a brutal attack. Like err…”but this holidays are linked to economic activities or if we remove them things wont be the same” That sort of lame excuse.

Why cant i go to the bank wearing my Isphandla, Afrikan Religion & Cultural symbolism or dreadlocks on Christmas day?

And this is called a democracy?

Benedictus Mahlangu:

Ask my African brother ask?

Mahlaga:

‘Evil forces against Christian holidays’ http://www.crlcommission.org.za/latestnews.php

David Robert Lewis:

What is worse, the National Holiday guidelines favour Christianity over all other religions.

Mahlaga:

?. We need to question this dominance. The last time i checked there was Hunduism, Shembe, Rastafarism, Judaism and Islam. And this is what is referred to as “diversity in unity” in the constitution? Even shocking to note the San people of Southern Afrika have nothing to celebrate except the ‘Ike Xarra ike” slogan in our code of arms.

Traditional Courts Bill via the provinces: Lets get talking.

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There has been much debate around the traditional courts bill for the best parts of 2012. In 2013, the bill will circulate via the provinces to gauge whether provinces accept or reject the bill. In recent debates, the bill has been heavily criticised for excluding women in traditional courts and was rejected outrightly by the Ministry of Women, Children and People with Diabilities. How potent is the ministry’s stance on the bill?

Since this bill relates to the primary objectives of this blog(to debate traditioonal issues of governance), we have decided to repost an article titled “Traditional Institutions, Leadership, marginalisation and the shame of the South African Constitution” in order to bring forth our argument for the passing of the bill. The reader will note that amongst those who support the bill are traditional leaders and traditional communities. In this article we highlight the plight of Traditional Leaders, Institutions and Cultural Communities in a country where it is claimed that democracy is fledging an all is well. Reading the article will indicate to the reader there are numerous challenges faced by Traditional leaders, their Institutions and Communities and hence our conviction that, if applied correcty, the draft bill will see to it that these and more challenges are addressed.
The article can be downloaded from here: http://wp.me/a2ne71-1w

In addition, we have included some review of the bill by journalist Siyabonga Mkhwanazi for reference and futher debate below:

Siyabonga Mkhwanazi @ The New Age; http://thenewage.co.za/90037-1007-53-Traditional_Courts_Bill_to_via_provinces

The contentious Traditional Courts Bill faces the test of whether it has the support of provinces or not.

Chairperson of the Select Committee on Security and Constitutional Development in Parliament, Tjetha Mofokeng, on Tuesday said provinces had to decide whether they backed or rejected the Bill.

Following the public hearings on the draft law the committee had sent the report to all the nine provinces to determine whether they supported the Traditional Courts Bill or not, Mofokeng said.

“They (provincial legislatures) must give us a mandate on whether they support or reject the bill. Based on the majority of the provinces (who support one position) the committee will take a decision,” he said.

“We don’t want to pre-empt what the provinces will say, but we are aware that some people say it (the Bill) must be scrapped (while) some people say it must be retained,” he said.

The committee will take a decision on the way forward depending on what the provincial legislatures want.

The National Council of Provinces held public hearings on the Bill late last year where various stakeholders criticised it.

However, the Bill received support from traditional leaders.

Even the Minister for Women, Children and People with Disabilities Lulu Xingwana had called for the government to scrap the Bill.

During the opening of the National House of Traditional Leaders last month President Jacob Zuma urged all South Africans to participate in the discussions on the draft law.

The Bill has been criticised for being oppressive against women and taking the country back to apartheid days.

However, Zuma had said that it would be important for all stakeholders to take part in discussions on the Bill.

The Bill has been called unconstitutional, criticised for excluding the participation of women in traditional courts and for giving traditional leaders more powers.

The Bill offered the prospect of access to justice to 18 million of the citizens who reside within the ambit of the traditional system.

Whats your take on the bill?